A fair wind of global climate action is gathering strength as governments head towards the next UN Climate Change Conference, COP 20/CMP 10, in Lima, Peru, opening December 1. UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres stressed the importance of Lima in working to arrive at a balanced, well-structured, coherent draft text on the road to the 2015 Paris Conference, where nations are committed to deliver a new universal agreement on climate change.
“What happens during the year leading up to the Paris agreement is going to do more to determine the quality of life of generations to come than anything that has happened before,” she said in a November speech capturing ther global picture of progress. See the full speech.
- Ms Figueres said in her speech that countries gather in Peru with the wind in their sails to deal with climate change for five main reasons:
- The science in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report has told us without a doubt that humans are responsible for climate change and must act
- Never before has there been such public support to act, as witnessed in the People’s Climate Marches around the world in September
- The economic equation is now clear to business: delayed action means far higher future costs but action now means immediate economic benefits
- The finance and technology to act effectively already exists
- There is a growing political will amongst governments to support action
Peruvian Environment Minister and COP20/CMP10 President Manuel Pulgar-Vidal in a welcoming video to participants said he is confident of positive outcomes from the conference and outlined the Presidencies overall goals.
Meanwhile, the Co-Chairs of the ADP, Mr Kishan Kumarsingh and Mr Artur Runge-Metzger responded to the request from the ADP to assist in focusing the negotiations in Lima by preparing a set of documents for the Conference which were released on 11 November 2014, including a non-paper on the elements for the 2015 agreement and a draft decision on advancing the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. To access the documents and check on any further updates from the Co Chairs see here.
Other Top News from the UNFCCC Ahead of COP 20/CMP 10
The Groundswell Gathers Force
The Lima conference comes at an important moment in time. Climate action gathers pace across the spectrum, with new government policies and pledges, rising commitments of financial and technology support for developing nations, major investment shifts by the private sector into clean and renewable energy and an across-the-board realization that climate adaptation planning and action is critical to the achievement of a sustainable future for all. This momentum was placed in sharp focus by the UN Secretary General’s New York Climate Summit, in September. Ban Ki-moon’s summary of the summit achievements highlighted the positive trends and very concrete pledges made.
Pledges to Green Climate Fund Total Nearly $9.6 billion
The Green Climate Fund concluded its first Pledging Conference this November in Berlin, Germany, with governments pledging a total of up to US$ 9.6 billion equivalent. Pledges were made by 22 countries, including contributions from four developing countries. Their combined contributions provide for the largest amount the international community has ever mobilized for a dedicated climate finance mechanism within a timeframe of less than five months. Further pledges are possible at the COP in Lima.
COP 20/CMP 10 in Lima
Specialist programs of the UNFCCC Secretariat will, as always, be in close support of the Lima Conference. Some of the main teams detail their planning below in several pre-conference reports with useful links.
Mitigation, Data and Analysis
- Strengthening the MRV regime for developed countries Parties: the MDA team will support the first-ever Multilateral Assessment of the implementation of the Convention by Annex I Parties based on the outcomes of the new International Assessment and Review (IAR) process.
- Advancing preparation for MRV implementation for developing country Parties: MDA will support negotiations and events relating to the launch of MRV for developing countries, including submission of first biennial reports by December 2014 and the process of international consultation and analysis that aims to enhance the transparency of mitigation actions.
- Achieving linkage between action and support: MDA will report on the recent successful “matches” between proposed mitigation actions and their support and will also organize a “NAMA day” on December 6.
- Moving reporting and review of GHG inventories from Annex I Parties to a new level: MDA will support Parties’ work to compete the revision of the review guidelines for GHG. inventories from Annex I Parties, to make the reviews consistent with the latest, 2006 IPCC Guidelines; MDA will also support the finalization of changes in the provisions of Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol necessary for the 2nd commitment period which is particularly important for facilitating swift ratification of the Doha Amendment to the Protocol.
Issues to be considered include:
- The report of the Adaptation Committee on its work on providing technical support and guidance to Parties and on enhancing the coherence of adaptation actions under the UNFCCC.
- Lessons learned from National Adaptation Plans preparations and moving towards agreement on how to fund and implement them.
- Review progress on the work of the Least Developed Countries’ Expert Group.
- The adequacy of the long-term global goal and overall progress made towards achieving it under the 2013-2015 Review.
- Information received from GCOS, CEOS and WMO and ways to strengthen research and systematic observation under the UNFCCC.
- Workplan, composition of, and procedures for, the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts, and; further activities to be addressed under the Nairobi Work Programme.
Finance, Technology and Capacity Building
Climate finance related negotiations will be taking place under all five Convention bodies (COP, CMP, ADP, SBI and SBSTA), including consideration of reports from:
- The two operating entities, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF)
- The Adaptation Fund Board
- The Standing Committee on Finance (SCF)
- In-session workshop on long-term climate finance
Additionally, Parties will discuss thefifth review of the Financial Mechanism, the second review of the Adaptation Fund, further guidance to theLeast Developed Countries Fund and methodologies for reporting information related to climate finance by Annex I Parties. There will be an in-session high-level ministerial dialogue on climate finance.
There will be also two side events organized by the secretariat on the SCF work regarding 2014 biennial assessment and overview of climate finance flows and the fifth review of the Financial Mechanism.
Parties will take stock of the first year of full operation of the UNFCCC’s Technology Mechanism. The COP will consider the 2014 work of the mechanism’s two bodies, the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), and discuss how to further enhance climate technology development and transfer.
COP 20 will take into consideration the TEC’s activities in 2014 on, inter alia, technology needs assessments, climate technology finance, technologies for adaptation and enabling environments and barriers. Parties will also consider the CTCN’s delivery of its three core services in its first year of full operation. This includes the CTCN’s work to respond to more than 20 developing country requests for technical assistance.
At Lima, the COP will also consider how to enhance linkages between the UNFCCC technology and finance mechanisms. Parties will further discuss climate technology finance in the consideration of the GEF report on the Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer. This will include consideration of the TEC’s initial steps to evaluate the programme, which the TEC is undertaken with the aim of enhancing the effectiveness of the Technology Mechanism.
Governments to Build Consensus on Capacity-Building
The success of a new climate agreement will also depend on the degree of countries’ readiness to put their plans into action. This entails creating and strengthening sub-national and national authorities, adopting and enforcing policies and regulations, developing human skills, establishing and promoting long-term partnerships and coordination mechanisms, and mobilizing public support.
Governments will analyze how the UNFCCC architecture supports capacity-building and what more needs to be done to scale it up . The rich proposals in front of the ADP and the SBI show many options to go forward.
Parties will look at increasingly moving to implementation and strengthening cooperation, including through scaled up support.
12 Shining Examples of Climate Action
The Secretariat’s Momentum for Change initiative is gearing up to showcase shining examples of climate action underway around the world in Lima. A series of special events during the conference’s second week will celebrate and recognize the 12 winning Lighthouse Activities announced earlier this week.
This year’s activities include both large, game-changing solutions and small, entrepreneurial efforts. They range from a multi-million-dollar initiative that is unlocking climate finance across Latin America to an enterprise that is empowering women with green jobs in Indonesia to an ICT-enabled early-warning system that is protecting people from floods in the Indian Himalayan region. All of the Lighthouse Activities are achieving real results.
The 2014 Lighthouse Activities show that action on climate change is not only possible but that it is already happening – injecting confidence into the global movement towards a meaningful climate change agreement in Paris in 2015.
Secretariat Opens New Showcases for Global Climate Action
Meanwhile, the UNFCCC Secretariat opened new showcases for growing climate action and progress by Parties, business and civil society. A major new tool for both Parties and the wider public is the new UNFCCC Newsroom, and its special Lima section, giving fast and clear access to key information and specific news about COP 20/CMP 10.
The Secretariat launched an interactive map showing current country emission reduction targets and actions ahead of 2020. A similar map shows the latest status of the Doha Amendment establishing the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol and why it is important.
The Newsroom opens a friendlier window to concrete achievements of the Convention. Stakeholders are now offered attractive entry points into the latest progress and opportunities under the Convention, from progress in NAMAs to transparency in the first Multilateral Assessment Process, from technology innovation to the CDM.
Source: UNFCCC Top News from 28.11.2014